<--- Fossil Animal (Gallus aesculapi)

Future Animal (Pavo Flamma/ Firefowl) ---->


Scientifically known as the Pavo cristatus, more commonly known as the Indian Peafowl. It was evolved form the Gallus aesculapi. The following report will describe the habitat and adaptation of the Indian Peafowl. It will also cover two behavior adaptation, two structure adaptation and one physiological adaptation that helped it to survive in the world today.

Basic Information

Kingdom:

Animalia

Phylum:

Chordata

Class:

Aves

Order:

Galliformes

Family:

Phasianidae

Genus:

Pavo

Species:

cristatus


The Habitat


The natural habitat of an animal contributes greatly to the lifestyle and behavior of an animal. Some will adapt better while others will struggle. For example, if an animal is living near the ocean, it's main source of food will probably come form the sea rather than the land comparing to animals which live on land. However, if it's food is coming from the land and it is living near the sea, it will have a problem finding adequate food to feed on. The Indian Peafowl ,Pavo cristatus, is also no doubt the same.
Area thats native to the Indian Peafowl
Area thats native to the Indian Peafowl

(Area of where Peafowls mainly emerge)
source : http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/South_Asia_%28ed%29.PNG

The Indian Peafowl tend to emerge in the subcontinent of India and the dryer lower land of Sri Lanka thus enjoys warmer climates thus prefer to live in rain-forests where water is near. Although the Indian Peafowls stay mostly on the ground, they tend to sleep in trees or areas that is off the ground. This is due to the fact that the areas in which they emerge have a lot of wild animals. Even though they are large, dogs, leopards and foxes can still hunt on them.

That is the main reason why they need to sleep off the ground to protect themselves (And yes, although they are big, they can still fly. That is how they get to trees, to sleep). Even though they prefer to stay above ground when sleeping, they don't like high altitude lands. Indian Peafowl can usually be found in areas that is below the altitude of 1800m. However some cases has been reported where Indian Peafowl was found above 2000m altitude.

Due to the fact that Indian Peafowls enjoy to live in an area that is close to the sea and next to forests, human activities are destroying the Indian Peafowl's idea habitat. Although some of the Peafowl adapted to it's new habitat, some can not change quickly enough and died. This is usually caused by the fact that humans destroy forests and pollutes water sources. Endangering the life of the Indian Peafowls.

The Indian Peafowl is very similar to Turkeys, they eat the same food, which is seed, fruit, small animals and insects. They can also catches the same sickness and disease as the turkey. Because that the Indian Peafowls tend to live in rain forests in South Asia, they won't have any problem in finding food and other resources that is needed for survival. The huge tail (known as train) is something that only male Indian Peafowl possess. The sole purpose of the 'train' is for mating. The male will first present it's train to a female then it will start to shake and vibrate and finally they will mate. Although the train of the Indian Peafowl stands out in the open, it's color usually blends in nicely with it's surroundings, causing a camouflage to it's predators.


Adaptations


Behavior Adaptation 1

Perhaps the most noticeable behavior adaptation of the Pavo cristatus is it's way of mating. Because that the peafowls want to be able to breed the strongest offspring, they developed a way to tell which peacock has the best genes to offer to the peahen. The male Pavo cristatus will first open up their train to let the female 'inspect' them. Each of the feather on the train of the Pavo cristatus has a dark 'eyespot' or known as the ocellus. The males will first face away from the female and open up their train of feathers into a fan shape. The females will then go around and decide whether they are impressed with the number of feathers/eyespot on the male. If so, they will start to mate.

One of the environmental pressure which causes this behavior is the constant threat of the lethal predators who shares the same land with the Pavo cristatus which includes the jungle cats, stray dogs and tigers. In this way, the Pavo cristatus can maximizes the chance of survival of their off-springs.
external image Peacock.displaying.better.800pix.jpg
Peacock showing off his train to let the females 'inspect' them
Source: http://www.gbwf.org/pheasants/images/peafowl_BC02.jpg

Behavior Adaptation 2

Another important behavior adaptation of the Pavo cristatus is probably it's way of calling. The Pavo cristatus has 11 different calls, with the males usually sounding the loudest. The have a kind of call that act as a siren which goes like "may-aw, may-aw'. Which warns other Pavo cristatus and animal of a predator near by. It can sometimes be mistaken with a women screaming. Because the Pavo cristatus screams in a high pitch, their calls can travel for a respectable amount of distance.

The environmental pressure which causes this warning system to develop is probably again, the constant threat of predators which live near them, forcing them to find a way to protect themselves.

Structural Adaptation 1

One of the most obvious structure adaption of the Pavo cristatus is is the females' dull color of feather. Unlike males, which is colorfully decorated with feathers of different colors. The male needs the colorful feathers to attract the opposite sex to mate with them while the female only has dull colors one's. This is because that the female does not need to attract any males, thus making beautiful feathers on female Pavo cristatus useless. Another good reason of why female Pavo cristatus does not have bright feathers is that because they want to blend in with their environment and to avoid predators. In this way, they may be able to survive for a longer period of time.

The Environmental impact for this adaptation is the danger of the rain forest, where the female peafowls may get eaten if it does not have a decent camouflage thus cannot reproduce the next generation.


external image anomencla.jpg
Labeled Diagram of the Peafowl which included it's train which is used to attract females.
Source:http://www.peafowl.org/peaphotos/anomencla.jpg

Structural Adaptation 2

One other important structural adaption of the Pavo cristatus is it's leg and toe. The Pavo cristatus has two strong legs and 4 strong toes that adapted to scratch the ground in order to find food. This allows the animal to gather food in a more convenient way. The strong leg can also act as a 'last option' weapon against predators.

The environmental factor that made this adaption happen is thought to be the food in which the Pavo cristatus is feeding it self with. As it occasionally consumes hard-shelled nuts, it needs a strong beak and strong legs to crush them.

Physiological Adaptation

The retina of the Pavo cristatus has adapted greatly to it's environment and habitat. According to research, it is stated that the Pavo barvardi has a very special distribution of it's ganglion cell and photoreceptor. Unlike it's closely related animal such as chicken, which has a concentrated patch photoreceptor that allows it to see clearly under it's beak for easy feeding which consist mostly of seed and grass.. The Pavo cristatus however feeds itself both on seeds, insects, berries and other small reptiles which it may handle. In this way, it will need a larger field of vision than the ones which a Chicken posses that allows them to see clearly under their eyes. This way, the Pavo cristatus will have a easier time spotting it's food.

The environmental factor that led Pavo cristatus to this adaptation is the constant need to feeding itself, so it needs to have a clear field of vision to hunt and eat.

Bibliography